Heart Failure

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Heart Failure

The prevalence of heart failure (HF) continues to increase over time1 and affects >60 million people each year2.

Therefore, being aware of the latest data in the HF space and different treatment options is important in order to be able to apply findings to clinical practice when making treatment decisions for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease, especially HF.

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1.Heart disease and stroke statistics-2020 update: a report from the American Heart Association

Virani SS, Alonso A, Benjamin EJ, et al. Circulation 2020;141:e139-e596.

https://doi.org/10.1161/CIR.0000000000000757

2. Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 328 diseases and injuries for 195 countries, 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016

GBD 2016 Disease and Injury Incidence and Prevalence Collaborators. Lancet 2017;390:1211-59.

https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(17)32154-2

Why is Iron Deficiency Recognised as an Important Comorbidity in Heart Failure?

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Iron is an essential trace element that is present in a number of molecular systems, and it is increasingly recognised as an important cofactor for a variety of cell systems.1 It has been acknowledged that iron plays an important role in oxygen transport, as well as in cell growth and proliferation.

Hyperkalemia and Renin–Angiotensin–Aldosterone System Inhibitors Dose Therapy in Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction

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Heart failure (HF) affects 1–2% of the population in developed countries and absorbs a significant amount of human and economic resources.1,2 HF is a complex syndrome characterised by a spectrum of symptoms and phenotypes: HF with preserved ejection fraction, HF with mid-range ejection fraction and HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF).3 Differentiating patients according to left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) is relevant as these syndromes have distinct patterns of under

Right Ventricular Failure: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis and Treatment

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In 1616, Sir William Harvey was the first person to describe the importance of right ventricular function.1 However, the right ventricle (RV) has received little attention in the past, with cardiology dealing mostly with the diseases of the left ventricle (LV) and their potential treatment. Since the early 1950s, however, the prognostic significance of RV function has been recognised in several conditions, primarily those involving the LV (e.g. chronic LV failure), the lungs and their vascular bed (e.g.

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