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Myocardial Infarction With Non-obstructive Coronary Arteries

Sivabaskari Pasupathy, Rosanna Tavella, Simon McRae, et al

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Management of Refractory Angina Pectoris

Kevin Cheng, Paul Sainsbury, Michael Fisher, et al

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Cardiovascular Management of Adults with Marfan Syndrome

Yukiko Isekame, Sabiha Gati, Jose Antonio Aragon-Martin, et al

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The Role of Ivabradine and Trimetazidine in the New ESC HF Guidelines

Ivan Milinkovic, Giuseppe Rosano, Yury Lopatin, et al

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Microvascular Coronary Artery Disease: Review Article

Abdulah Alrifai, Mohamad Kabach, Jonathan Nieves, et al

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Atrial Arrhythmias in Pulmonary Hypertension

Brett Wanamaker, Thomas Cascino, Vallerie V McLaughlin, et al

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Stable Angina Medical Therapy

Talla A Rousan, Udho Thadani,

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Ivabradine and AF: Coincidence, Correlation or a New Treatment?

Mahmoud Abdelnabi, Ashraf Ahmed, Abdallah Almaghraby, et al


Stable angina pectoris is characterised by typical exertional chest pain that is relieved by rest or nitrates. Angina is caused by myocardial ischaemia. Chronic stable angina has a consistent duration and severity, and is provoked by a predictable level of exertion. It can also be provoked by emotional stress. The pain is relieved by rest or short-acting nitrates.

Patients should have an ECG and undergo assessment for cardiovascular risk factors such as diabetes and hyperlipidaemia. An echocardiograph can help with the assessment of left ventricular function. Beta-blockers and calcium channel antagonists remain first-line options for treatment, while short-acting nitrates can be used for symptoms.

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