From the Office of Surveillance and Epidemiology (D.J.G., M.E.R., K.M., M.R.G., M.H.), Office of Biostatistics (R.Z., M.L.), and Office of New Drugs (M.R.S.), Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD; Acumen LLC, Burlingame, CA (M.W., T.S., T.E.M.); Department of Economics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (T.E.M.); and Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, Washington, DC (C.W., J.A.K.).