Heart failure is a serious problem in children with acquired and congenital heart disease (CHD). In 2006, there were nearly 14 000 hospitalizations related to heart failure in pediatric patients. The disease is also costly, not only in terms of lives lost with a 20-fold increase in hospital mortality compared with children without heart failure but also in terms of morbidities, prolonged hospitalizations, and dramatically high hospital charges. However, it is not clear that there has been an overall improvement in the outcomes of children with heart failure. Although the risk-adjusted hospital mortality has declined, several single-center and multicenter studies of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) failed to demonstrate any change in survival over several decades.
Circulation. 2014 Feb 4;129(5):607-12.