Type 2 diabetes and risk of heart failure: a systematic review and meta-analysis from cardiovascular outcome trials

Dario Giugliano
Maria Ida Maiorino
Miriam Longo
Giuseppe Bellastella
Paolo Chiodini
Katherine Esposito

Recognizing that 12 CVOTs have been completed, we planned a systematic review and meta-analysis of CVOTs that evaluated the effect of GLP-1 RAs, DPP-4i, and SGLT2i on HF risk in patients with T2D.

We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated the effect of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4i), glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs), and sodium glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2i) on heart failure (HF) risk in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D).

The electronic search was carried out until 10 November 2018. RCTs were included if they compared add-on therapy with any DPP-4i, GLP-1 RAs, or SGLT-2i with placebo, and included in the outcome hospitalization for HF, and other outcomes required for cardiovascular safety studies. Risk of HF was the primary outcome for this meta-analysis. We used a random-effect model to calculate hazard ratio (HR) and 95% CI. Twelve trials were identified, involving 120,765 patients. Compared with placebo, HF risk showed a non-significant 10% reduction with the newer anti-hyperglycemic drugs (HR = 0.90, 0.80–1.01); use of DPP-4i and GLP-1 RAs was associated with nonsignificant modifications of the HF risk (+5% and −9%, respectively), while the use of SGLT-2i was associated with a significant 31% reduction of the HF risk (HR = 0.69, 0.61–0.79, P < 0.001), with no heterogeneity (I2 = 0%, P = 0.741), suggesting a class effect. The meta-regression analysis of all 12 trials showed no association of reductions of hemoglobin A1C with HF risk.

A total of 91 trials were included, among which were 171,253 participants and 4163 reported cases of heart failure events. As for rankograms, the surface under the cumulative ranking curves (SUCRA) of sodium-glucose co-transporters 2 and thiazolidinediones were 93.4% and 4.3%, respectively, signifying the lowest and highest risk of heart failure, respectively. As for pairwise comparisons in the network, sodium-glucose co-transporters 2 were significantly superior to insulin (OR: 0.75, 95% CI 0.62–0.91), dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors (OR: 0.68, 95% CI 0.59–0.78), glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (OR: 0.65, 95% CI 0.54–0.78), and thiazolidinediones (OR: 0.46, 95% CI 0.27–0.77) in terms of heart failure risk. Furthermore, in an exploratory analysis among subjects with underlying heart failure or at risk of heart failure, the superiority of sodium-glucose co-transporters 2 was still significant.

In T2D, SGLT-2i can reduce the risk of HF that is unrelated to improved glycemic control; DPP-4i and GLP-1 RAs behave as neutral.

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Endocrine. 2019 Apr 26.