The global prevalence of diabetes has risen in adults from 4.7% in 1980 to 8.5% in 2014. 90–95% of adults with diabetes have Type 2 diabetes (T2D). This paper focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of T2D patients who have or are at risk for cardiovascular disease. Hyperglycemia, insulin resistance and excess fatty acids increase oxidative stress, disrupt protein kinase C signaling and increase advanced glycation end-products that result in vascular inflammation, vasoconstriction, thrombosis and atherogenesis. Intensive T2D treatment produces a ≥10% risk reduction in major macrovascular and microvascular events. Glucose-lowering therapies must be individualized. Metformin is an optimal drug for monotherapy. If hemoglobin A1c is not at goal, a sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor or a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor should be considered for therapy with metformin. Coronary angioplasty/stenting is recommended for diabetic patients with acute myocardial infarctions. Coronary artery bypass grafting is recommended for symptomatic diabetic patients with multivessel disease.
Henning RJ. Future Cardiol 2018;14:491–509.