The past decade in type 2 diabetes and future challenges


There is today an exponential increase in prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), especially in young people. This downward shift in age of onset of T2DM has been shown by abundant evidence to be due to an increase in obesity among the young, the latter mainly attributable to unhealthy dietary habits and a sedentary lifestyle. It is therefore obvious that the prevention of diabetes rather its treatment is of is paramount importance. In the past decade, because concerns about the safety of antidiabetic agents took precedence over the issue of efficacy, almost all studies have been diabetes CVOTs and not traditional CVOTs. Until 2015, the evidence showed that antidiabetic agents are effective in terms of reduction of microvascular, as opposed to macrovascular, complications. However, following publication of the results of some new studies, it became clear that the new class of antidiabetic drugs, e.g., SGLT 2 inhibitors and GLP-1 agonists, are also effective in reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD). In the coming decade, numerous health challenges are expected to arise, the most important being the greater expansion of the therapeutic armamentarium for T2DM and the adoption of strategies for prevention of CVDs. In parallel, the new generation of antidiabetic agents will target the recently investigated pathophysiologic disorders of diabetes, while, ideally, treatments should include smart drugs without side effects.

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Haddad JA, Haddad AN. Hormones 2018;17:451–9.