This study sought to describe the association between trends in primary and secondary vascular access sites and vascular access site complications (VASCs) among patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in Michigan.
The frequency of transradial PCI has increased. As a result, there is concern that operators may lose femoral-access proficiency resulting in a paradoxical increase in PCI complications. Anecdotally, an increase in secondary access use during PCI has also been observed.
Data from the BMC2 (Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan Cardiovascular Consortium) registry was queried to evaluate the use of transradial and transfemoral PCI and their associated VASCs.
From 2013 to 2017, transradial PCI increased from 25.9% to 45.2% and the overall use of secondary vascular access increased from 4.9% to 8.7% with minimal change in overall VASCs (1.2% to 1.4%). The use of secondary vascular access was associated with increased VASCs (odds ratio [OR]: 5.82; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.26 to 6.43). Although, patients treated by operators in the highest tertile of radial use were more likely to experience femoral VASCs (adjusted OR: 1.51; 95% CI: 1.08 to 2.13), treatment by these operators was associated with an overall reduction in all VASCs (adjusted OR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.46 to 0.83).
Despite increased use of transradial PCI, there has been no significant decrease in VASCs. This is in part attributable to an increased incidence of femoral VASCs and increasing use of secondary vascular access. An overall reduction in VASCs was observed in the highest radial use operators. Further strategies are needed to reduce VASCs in the transradial era.