OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of diabetes mellitus (DM) on provisional coronary bifurcation stenting under the complete guidance of intravascular-ultrasound (IVUS).
BACKGROUND: The efficacy of such intervention has not yet been fully elucidated in the DM patients.
METHODS: A total of 100 DM and 139 non-DM patients in a prospective multi-center registry of IVUS-guided bifurcation stenting were compared in angiographic results at 9 months. Vessel and luminal changes during the intervention were analyzed using the IVUS. Vascular healing at the follow-up was also investigated in 23 lesions in each group using optical coherence tomography (OCT).
RESULTS: No difference was detected regarding baseline reference vessel diameter and minimum lumen diameter in proximal main vessel (MV), distal MV, and side branch (SB). The rate of everolimus-eluting stent use (78.4% vs. 78.3%), final kissing inflation (60.1% vs. 49.0%), and conversion to 2-stent strategy (2.9% vs. 2.8%) were also similar. In the DM group, late loss was greater in proximal MV (DM 0.23 ± 0.29 vs. non-DM 0.16 ± 0.24 mm, P < 0.05) and SB (0.04 ± 0.49 vs. −0.08 ± 0.35 mm, P < 0.05). Smaller vessel area restricted stent expansion in the proximal MV (6.18 ± 1.67 vs. 6.72 ± 2.07 mm2, P < 0.05). More inhomogeneous neointimal coverage (unevenness score, 1.90 ± 0.33 vs. 1.72 ± 0.29, P < 0.05) and more frequent thrombus attachment (26% vs. 4%, P < 0.05) were documented in the proximal MV at 9-month follow-up OCT.
CONCLUSIONS: Despite IVUS optimization for coronary bifurcation, DM is potentially associated with smaller luminal gain, higher late-loss, and inhomogeneous vascular healing with frequent thrombus attachment in the proximal MV.