Diagnosis – Echocardiography

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  • Ejection fraction is one of the most powerful determinants of prognosis and is a crucial parameter for the determination of cardiovascular therapies in conditions such as heart failure, valvular conditions and ischaemic heart disease.

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    Ejection fraction is one of the most powerful determinants of prognosis and is a crucial parameter for the determination of cardiovascular therapies in conditions such as heart failure, valvular conditions and ischaemic heart disease.

    The preferred method is 3D echocardiography, due to its increased accuracy and reproducibility. Full-volume multi-beat acquisitions are prone to stitching artefacts due to arrhythmias and require prolonged breath holds. Single-beat acquisitions exhibit a lower temporal resolution, but address the limitations of multi-beat acquisitions. If not fully automated, 3D echocardiography remains time-consuming and resource-intensive, with suboptimal observer variability, preventing its implementation in routine practice.

    Further developments in hardware and software, including fully automated knowledge-based algorithms for left ventricular quantification, may bring 3D echocardiography to a definite turning point.

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