It is well known that both atrial fibrillation (AF) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are respectively independent predictors of stroke and systemic thromboembolism. A number of epidemiological and observational studies have shown that there are close relationships between AF and CKD [1–3]. Indeed, the prevalence of AF increases from non-CKD to CKD stages of 1 to 2, 3 and 4 to 5 by 1.0%, 2.8%, 2.7%, and 4.2%, respectively , and the prevalence is 7% to 27% in patients with end-stage renal disease who are undergoing hemodialysis therapy .
Higashi Y. Int J Cardiol. 29 August, 2018. pii: S0167-5273(18)34620-5. Epub ahead of print.