Accumulated evidence shows that some antidiabetic agents attenuate the progression of carotid atherosclerosis assessed as intima-media thickness (IMT). Although some studies have demonstrated an inhibitory effect of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors on carotid IMT progression, in the PROLOGUE study sitagliptin failed to slow progression relative to conventional therapy for 24 months. We hypothesized that differences in the concomitant antidiabetic agents between the groups have influenced the progression of carotid IMT. We performed a post hoc analysis of the PROLOGUE study using subgroups stratified by concomitant antidiabetic agents. Although no subgroup with any combination of agents in the overall patients showed a significant difference between sitagliptin group and conventional therapy group in the changes from baseline in mean common carotid artery (CCA)-IMT at 24 months, a significant attenuation of mean CCA-IMT progression was observed in the sitagliptin group relative to conventional therapy group only in three combination subgroups aged < 70 years, namely no thiazolidinedione; no thiazolidinedione or biguanide; and no thiazolidinedione, biguanide or α-glucosidase inhibitor, even after adjustment for multiple confounding factors. In the three subgroups, no significant difference between sitagliptin group and conventional therapy group in the changes from baseline in HbA1c at 24 months was detected. Our data suggest that some concomitant agents, whose prescription frequencies were increased in the conventional therapy group, may have masked the inhibitory effect of sitagliptin on carotid IMT progression in the PROLOGUE study.
Tanaka A, Kawaguchi A, Oyama J, et al. Heart Vessels 2019;34:375–84.