Acute kidney injury (AKI) after coronary intervention occurs in 10% to 15% of cases and is associated with a 3 to 5 fold increase in mortality. The question that remains is wheather kidney injury is casual for this mortality or simply a marker of comorbidity and risk. Despite this, the area of contrast-induced AKI has been littered with promising interventions (e.g. N-acetylcysteine) that have been shown to be ineffective in large randomized trials.
J Am Coll Cardiol. 2017 May 11. pii: S0735-1097(17)36901-2.