Ventricular Septal Defect

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  • Ventricular septal defect (VSD) is the most common congenital cardiac anomaly in children and is the second most common congenital abnormality in adults, second only to bicuspid aortic valve. Isolated VSD occurs in .3% of newborns and accounts for 37% of all congenital heart disease in children overall.

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    Ventricular septal defect (VSD) is the most common congenital cardiac anomaly in children and is the second most common congenital abnormality in adults, second only to bicuspid aortic valve. Isolated VSD occurs in .3% of newborns and accounts for 37% of all congenital heart disease in children overall.

    Approximately 85% to 90% of small, isolated VSDs close spontaneously during the first year of life. If they do not close, VSD can lead to complications such as pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), ventricular dysfunction and an increased risk of arrhythmias. Patients with small, asymptomatic VSDs with the absence of PAH have an excellent prognosis without any intervention. Otherwise, the management approach includes endocarditis prophylaxis and surgery to close the VSD.

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