INTRODUCTION: The past 60 years have brought remarkable advancements in the diagnosis and treatment of congenital heart disease (CHD). Early diagnosis and improvements in cardiac surgery and interventional cardiology have resulted in unprecedented survival of patients with CHD, even those with the most complex lesions. Despite remarkable success in treatments, many interventions are palliative rather than curative, and patients often develop cardiac complications, including heart failure (HF). HF management in the setting of CHD is challenged by the wide range of ages at which HF occurs, the heterogeneity of the underlying anatomy and surgical repairs, the wide spectrum of HF causes, the lack of validated biomarkers for disease progression, the lack of reliable risk predictors or surrogate end points, and the paucity of evidence demonstrating treatment efficacy.
Stout KK, Broberg CS, Book WM, et al. Circulation 2016;133:770–801.