BACKGROUND: Whether increasing use of radial access has improved percutaneous coronary intervention outcomes remains unknown. We sought to determine the relationship between increasing facility-level use of transradial percutaneous coronary intervention (TRI) and periprocedural outcomes.
METHODS AND RESULTS: Within the National Cardiovascular Data Registry CathPCI Registry, we estimated the risk-adjusted association between hospital category of change in TRI use (during the 3-year period from 2009 to 2012) and trends in access site and overall bleeding, fluoroscopy time, and contrast use among 818 facilities with low baseline TRI use. There were 4 categories of hospital change in TRI use: very low (baseline, 0.2% increasing to 1.8% at the end of 3 years), low (0.9% increasing to 8.9%), moderate (1.6% increasing to 27.2%), and high (1.0% increasing to 45.1%). Risk-adjusted access site bleeding decreased over time for all hospital categories; however, the rate of decline varied across hospital categories (P for interaction, <0.001). The decrease in access site bleeding was significantly greater for hospitals with moderate or high increases in TRI use (relative risk, 0.45, 95% confidence interval, 0.36–0.56) when compared with that of very low or low hospitals (relative risk, 0.65; 95% confidence interval, 0.58–0.74; P for comparison, 0.002). Similar findings were observed for overall bleeding. An increase in fluoroscopy time (≈1.3 minutes) was noted at hospitals with moderate and high use of TRI (P=0.01). Trends in contrast use were similar across hospital categories.
CONCLUSIONS: In a national sample of hospitals performing percutaneous coronary intervention, bleeding rates decreased over time for all hospital categories of change in TRI use. The decline in bleeding outcomes was larger at hospitals with increased adoption of TRI when compared with hospitals with minimal or no change in TRI use.