PURPOSE: Glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) was identified to account for the risk of cardiovascular diseases in type 2 diabetic patients, but no study evaluated the risk based on both HbA1c and FPG levels. We described the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and hypoglycemic in type 2 diabetic patients according to both HbA1c and FPG levels.
METHODS: With the usage of databases of Action in Diabetes and Vascular disease: preterAx and diamicroN-MR Controlled Evaluation (ADVANCE), 1815 patients from 61 centers in China was identified and grouped according to the criterion value of HbA1c and FPG: Good glycemic control (HbA1c < 6.5%, FPG < 6.1 mmol/L); Insufficient glycemic control (HbA1c < 6.5%, FPG ≥ 6.1 mmol/L or HbA1c ≥ 6.5%, FPG < 6.1 mmol/L); Poor glycemic control (HbA1c ≥ 6.5%, FPG ≥ 6.1 mmol/L). Time-varying multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were employed.
RESULTS: Average age was 64.8 ± 5.8 years, with a median of 4.8 years of follow-up. Overall, the incidence rates of MACE were 20.6 per 1000-person-years in Good glycemic control compared with 45.9 per 1000-person-years in Insufficient glycemic control (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR): 1.99; 95% CI 1.11–3.56; p = 0.02) and 54.7 per 1000-person-years in Poor glycemic control (aHR: 2.46; 95% CI 1.38–4.40; p = 0.002), respectively. The risk of hypoglycemic was highest in Insufficient glycemic control; 67.3 per 1000-person-years compared with 46.3 per 1000-person-years in Good glycemic control (aHR: 1.62; 95% CI 1.03–2.56; p = 0.04). Apart from this, we also observed that both MACE (aHR:1.41; 95% CI 1.13–1.77; p = 0.003) and hypoglycemic episodes (aHR: 1.82; 95% CI 1.48–2.24; p < 0.001) were sufficiently more frequent in the insulin-exposed group than the non-exposed group. In a post-hoc analysis, the risk of MACE (aHR:1.43; 95% CI 1.09–1.86; p = 0.01) and hypoglycemic (aHR: 1.99; 95% CI 1.46–2.69; p < 0.001) were more pronounced in Insufficient glycemic control with insulin exposure.
CONCLUSIONS: We observed a significant association of cause-specific risk of MACE and hypoglycemic with Insufficient glycemic control, particularly with insulin exposure.