The number of patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) has significantly increased over the last decades. The CHD population has a high prevalence of heart failure during late follow-up and this is a major cause of mortality. Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) may be a promising therapy to improve the clinical outcome of CHD and paediatric patients with heart failure. However, the CHD and paediatric population is a highly heterogeneous group with different anatomical substrates that may influence the effects of CRT. Echocardiography is the mainstay imaging modality to evaluate CHD and paediatric patients with heart failure and novel echocardiographic tools permit a comprehensive assessment of cardiac dyssynchrony that may help selecting candidates for CRT. This article reviews the role of CRT in the CHD and paediatric population with heart failure. The current inclusion criteria for CRT as well as the outcomes of different anatomical subgroups are evaluated. Finally, echocardiographic assessment of mechanical dyssynchrony in the CHD and paediatric population and its role in predicting response to CRT is comprehensively discussed.
Eur Heart J. 2011 Sep. 32(18):2236-46