In children, cardiac failure is most often caused by congenit al heart disease and cardiomyopathy. These causes are significantly different from those usually responsible for the condition in adults, which include coronary artery disease and hypertension.
Literature searches were undertaken using a variety of search engines includ ing PubMed, the Cochrane Library, BMJ Clinical Evidence and the National Guideline Clearing house to identify evidence for the manag ement of cardiac failure. Ther e is a large amount of research published on the management of heart failure in adults, which has given rise to significant changes in manage ment in the last decade. However, there are far fewer studies in child ren and those which do exist are often small, retrospective and use a diverse range of measures to assess efficacy.