IMPORTANCE: Bivalirudin has been associated with reduced bleeding and mortality during primary percutaneous coronary intervention for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). However, increased rates of acute stent thrombosis (AST) have been noted when bivalirudin is discontinued at the end of the procedure, which is perhaps related to this medication’s short half-life.
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the clinical effect of procedure duration on AST when either bivalirudin or heparin plus glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor inhibitor (GPI) is used.
DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: An ad hoc analysis of the Harmonizing Outcomes with Revascularization and Stents in Acute Myocardial Infarction (HORIZONS-AMI) clinical trial was performed between March 1, 2015, and April 30, 2016, on patients who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention with stents and were randomized 1:1 to bivalirudin or heparin plus GPI. Defined as the difference between the patient’s arrival at the catheterization laboratory and the patient’s final angiogram. Participants included 3602 patients with STEMI, aged 18 years or older, who were undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention and presenting less than 12 hours from symptom onset.
MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Clinical events committee–adjudicated definite AST (occurring ≤24 hours after percutaneous coronary intervention).
RESULTS: Among patients included in this analysis, procedure time was identified in 1286 receiving bivalirudin and 1412 receiving heparin plus GPI. Shorter procedures were defined as the lowest quartile of duration (<45 minutes). Patients undergoing shorter procedures were younger and less likely to be hypertensive and smokers. Shorter procedures were less complicated with fewer stents implanted, less multivessel stenting, less thrombus, and less no-reflow. An increased risk of definite AST was associated with shorter than with longer procedures with bivalirudin (7 [2.1%] vs 7 [0.7%]; relative risk, 2.87; 95% CI, 1.01-8.17; P=.04) but not with heparin plus GPI (0 vs 3 [0.3%]; P=.30).
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Despite less procedural complexity, shorter primary percutaneous coronary intervention time was associated with an increased risk of AST in patients treated with bivalirudin but not patients treated with heparin plus GPI, possibly because of the rapid offset of bivalirudin’s antithrombotic effect during a window of limited oral antiplatelet action.