Stephen Ralph Large is a Cardio-thoracic and Transplant Surgeon at Papworth Hospital in Cambridge, a position he has held since 1989. He has developed a particular interest in surgery for the failing heart and ran the heart transplant programme for 20 years, making Papworth the most active centre for intra-thoracic transplantation in the UK and one of the most active internationally. He currently enjoys a research partnership with Stanford California and Winnipeg Canada. Heart donation has been his career-long research interest. Interest in the failing heart has led to the development of a national programme of mechanical heart support and strategies to maximise cardiac transplant activity. Dr Large has authored 215 papers. Part of his original brief for the hospital was the establishment and provision of a programme of arrhythmia surgery. This spawned surgery for atrial fibrillation in 1992, which led to the development of the now widely accepted Papworth Cox-Maze operation.