During recent years, new conceptual, technical and drug strategies have led to improved early and late outcomes after coronary artery bypass surgery. These new strategies can be divided into the following three groups: optimisation of pre-operative patient selection and indications for and timing of the operation; peri-procedural refinements, including new techniques and instruments to avoid extracorporeal circulation, reduce aortic manipulation and minimise surgical access; and improvements to post-operative care, such as fast-track protocols and long-term drug therapy. In summary, the wide range of the surgical armamentarium available today allows cardiovascular surgeons to adapt the surgical strategy to individual patients and the given clinical scenario. This article aims to describe clinical rationales for the adoption of new concepts, provide an introduction to technical details and discuss clinical study results where appropriate.
Off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB), endoscopic graft harvesting, minimally invasive surgery, minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass (MIDCAB), hybrid coronary revascularisation
Disclosure: The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.
Received: 28 November 2010 Accepted: 7 January 2011 Citation: European Cardiology, 2011;7(1):55├óÔé¼ÔÇ£61
Correspondence: Ardawan J Rastan, Department of Cardiac Surgery, University of Leipzig, Struempellstr. 39, 04289 Leipzig, Germany. E: email@example.com
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