Clinical Benefits of the Cardiac Troponin T-high Sensitive Assay in Acute Coronary Syndrome

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Abstract

On 31 August 2010 Roche Diagnostics hosted a satellite symposium at the European Society of Cardiology Congress in Stockholm entitled ├óÔé¼´åİClinical Benefits of the Cardiac Troponin T-high Sensitive Test in Acute Coronary Syndrome.™ The symposium was chaired by Hugo Katus, Medical Director of Cardiology at the Angiology and Pneumology Medical Clinic in Heidelberg and Allan Jaffe, Chair of the Division of Core Clinical Laboratory Services at the Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester. The symposium consisted of three talks by leaders in the field of cardiac biomarkers addressing the latest improvements in the diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome.

Keywords
Troponin T, acute coronary syndrome, biomarker, myocardial infarction, sensitivity, immunoassay

Speakers: Christian Mueller, University Hospital Basel; Evangelos Giannitsis, Angiology and Pneumology Medical Clinic, Heidelberg; James L Januzzi, Harvard Medical School.
Received: 3 December 2010 Accepted: 17 December 2010 Citation: European Cardiology, 2011;7(1):14├óÔé¼ÔÇ£7
Support: The publication of this satellite symposium report was sponsored by Roche Diagnostics.

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Improvements in the Early Diagnosis of Acute Myocardial Infarction using a Cardiac Troponin T-high Sensitive Assay
In the first talk, Christian Mueller, a Professor at the University Hospital in Basel, discussed the unmet needs of current troponin assays and the improvements made in the early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) using the latest cardiac troponin T-high sensitive (cTnT-hs) assay.

There is a Clinical Need for High Sensitive Cardiac Troponin Tests
To put the new assay into context, Professor Mueller first explained the clinical problem in using conventional cardiac troponin (cTn) as a marker indicative of AMI. When patients report chest pain, three important variables are used to make the diagnosis: detailed patient history, 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) and cTn as a preferred biomarker to document myocardial cell necrosis. If the ECG shows significant ST-segment elevation, the management of the patient is clearly defined. However, for the vast majority of patients with AMI who do not have significant ST-segment elevation or depression, the cTn assay is the most important diagnostic test.

The limitation of conventional cTn assays is that it takes approximately three to four hours before a detectable increase in peripheral blood cTn levels can be detected (see Figure 1). In current clinical practice, a second cTnT test is therefore required six to eight hours after the onset of a suspected AMI and patients require constant ECG monitoring during those hours. Furthermore, the inability to make a confirmed diagnosis of AMI for up to six to eight hours after the onset of chest pain means that there is a delay in adequate therapy for those patients who are later confirmed or ├óÔé¼´åİruled-in™ to have AMI, allowing more cardiac damage to occur and subsequently increasing the risk of morbidity. The need for monitoring and further tests also contributes to the overcrowding of emergency departments and increases overall costs. Moreover, patients with benign disease who are later excluded or ├óÔé¼´åİruled-out™ from having AMI, suffer increased anxiety while awaiting results.

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References
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