Ischemia

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  • Myocardial ischaemia occurs for a mismatch between blood flow and metabolic requirements, when the rate of oxygen and metabolic substrates delivery to the myocardium is insufficient to meet the myocardial energy requirements for a given myocardial workload.

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    Myocardial ischaemia occurs for a mismatch between blood flow and metabolic requirements, when the rate of oxygen and metabolic substrates delivery to the myocardium is insufficient to meet the myocardial energy requirements for a given myocardial workload.

    Some of these metabolic changes are beneficial and may help the heart adapt to the ischemic condition. However, most of the changes are maladaptive and contribute to the severity of the ischemic injury leading stunned or hibernating myocardium, cell death and ultimately to contractile dysfunction. Dramatic changes in cardiac metabolism and contractile function, also occur during myocardial reperfusion as a consequence of the generation of oxygen free radicals, loss of cation homeostasis, depletion of energy stores, and changes in subcellular activities. The reperfusion injury may cause in the death of cardiac myocytes that were still viable immediately before myocardial reperfusion. This form of myocardial injury, by itself can induce cardiomyocyte death and increase infarct size. During acute ischemia the relative substrate concentration is the prime factor defining preference and utilisation rate.

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